- · The basic framework or features of a system - Infrastructure
- · A global effort to develop an environment in which individual users can access computers, databases, and experimental facilities simply and transparently, without having to consider where those facilities are located – Cloud Computing
- · The programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the functioning of the hardware and direct its operation. -Software
- · A computer and the associated physical equipment directly involved in the performance of data-processing or communications functions. -hardware
- · Software designed to control the hardware of a specific data-processing system in order to allow users and application programs to make use of it. - Operating system
- · A software program which carries out specific tasks on behalf of other computer users - application
- · A workstation or desktop computer including a screen, keyboard, and mouse; communicates directly with the user - client
- · A more powerful computer which accepts work re-quests from clients, does the work, and sends results back to the client - server
1. Provide a definition and an example of each of these:
A computer and the associated physical equipment directly involved in the performance of data-processing or communications functions. E.g. RAM, processor, DVD drive etc
b. Operating system
Software designed to control the hardware of a specific data-processing system in order to allow users and application programs to make use of it. E.g. Linux, Windows 10 etc
The programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the functioning of the hardware and direct its operation. E.g. Browsers, visual studio, notepad etc.
2. How has the major transformation of cell phones impacted day-to-day activities of a service repair company – what can the service repair person do today that they could not do before this transformation?
Now they can give support on phone. Even cross platform audio/video calling is available. This reduces the distance b/w remote support representative and customer
3. List three e-businesses that use database software and describe how the database software is being used.
· Online book store
· Online clothing store
· Online personal shopping service
And so on
All of this kind of e-businesses now has a front end web application [deployed on front end server farms] exposed to external world, and data being stored in database servers [in farm]. Each and every bit of data which might be helpful to lure user to buy more is stored, their purchase history, their browsing behavior, payment information for easy checkout, addresses and such personal details. And so on.
4. Write down the steps of a simple credit card transaction. How many places does the in-formation go, and what happens if the transaction is not complete at any one of the steps? What role does a database play in this process?
- · Making the Purchase. The customer finds a product that he or she likes and decides to make the purchase. The customer can use a credit card to pay for the item in the store, through an online payment gateway, by phone or by mail.
- · Entering the Transaction. The credit card is swiped through a secure credit card terminal, or the card and transaction information is entered in. For e-commerce transactions, the cardholder keys in the payment option. Generally, online store gives the option to customer to save credit card details to their DB for future use, if customer wishes to.
- · Transmitting the Data. The credit card data is transmitted for approval as the terminal, point of sales system or secure payment gateway is connected to the processing network.
- · Approve or Decline. Once the data is transmitted, the credit card issuer can approve or decline the transaction. This is based on the validity of the card, the transaction, as well as the cardholder’s available funds. This is based on information retrieved from card provider database.
- · Responding. If the transaction is approved, the processor and the merchant receive an authorization response (along with unique identifier). To identify this pending debit, a unique identifier is maintained in payment gateway and is mapped to entries in card provider database records too.
- · Completing the Transaction. The merchant completes the transaction. And stores relevant information in orders in his DB.
- · Submitting a Batch Closure. The merchant completes the credit card payment process at the end of the day with a batch closure. This closes out the transactions that have been processed on that day. The processor’s acquiring bank then collects the funds from the credit card issuers. This marks the transaction complete in merchant’s DB, payment gateway provider DB and card provider DB.
- · Depositing the Funds. The processor’s acquiring bank then deposits the funds into the merchant’s business account. This typically takes up to 48 hours.
Each step mentioned above stores intermittent data in database, if the transaction is not complete, it is reverted back with help of this intermittent data.
- · I placed the order, did the payment online, but within few hours. I cancelled the order, generally before EOD. The merchant will remove that transaction from daily batch closure and the pending charges on my card will be rolled back after some days.
- · Say the payment is declined by card, the merchant won’t get the authorization code back and order won’t be placed.